15 September 2017
When in history an era of populism returns, these movements are like stormy waves crashing over governments and institutions. Since the mid-19th century different types of populism have emerged at different times and in various cultures. All of them have common factors: they fail to represent the whole community; they deny pluralism and exclude minorities; the leader’s figure is that of a father-master; they exalt nationalism; they are promoters of demagogic forms of direct democracy. Populist movements are on the increase mainly because of the fear of migration, economic crises and the corruption prevalent among political classes. However, populisms, wherever they appear, are only expressions of a waning democracy and not its cure.